By Peter Ladefoged
Phonetics is so comprehensible with A path IN PHONETICS and its CD! This best-selling textual content will get undergraduates painlessly into the subdiscipline of phonetics. Attuning your ear and working towards speech sounds is straightforward with the CD-ROM; over 4,000 audio records contain many types of English and nearly a hundred different languages. The CD additionally includes fabric for each chapter--recordings of phrases within the tables and function exercises--and maps with hyperlinks to sounds of the languages spoken in a variety of parts of the area.
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Additional info for A Course in Phonetics (Sixth Edition)
When you say the whole word play, the l is typically voiceless, and very different from the l in lay. Say the l at the beginning of lay, and you’ll hear that it is definitely voiced. It follows from these examples that a phoneme is not a single sound, but a name for a group of sounds. There is a group of t sounds and a group of l sounds that occur in English. It is as if you had in your mind an ideal t or l, and the ones that are actually produced are variations that differ in small ways that do not affect the meaning.
From this, it seems as if there is some kind of high pitch associated with the high front vowel in heed and a low pitch associated with one of the back vowels. The lowest whistled note corresponds to the tongue and lip gestures very much like those used for the vowel in who. A good way to learn how to make a high back vowel is to whistle your lowest note possible, and then add voicing. Another way of minimizing the sound of the vocal fold vibrations is to say the vowels in a very low, creaky voice.
But it might be useful to know the terms trill (sometimes called roll) and tap (sometimes called flap). Tongue-tip trills occur in some forms of Scottish English in words such as rye and raw. Taps, in which the tongue makes a single tap against the alveolar ridge, occur in the middle of a word such as pity in many forms of American English. The production of some sounds involves more than one of these manners of articulation. Say the word cheap and think about how you make the first sound. At the beginning, the tongue comes up to make contact with the back part of the alveolar ridge to form a stop closure.