By Stephen Grossberg
Those books assemble fresh neural versions of imaginative and prescient, speech and language acceptance and bear in mind, cognitive self-organization, conditioning, reinforcement, motivation, awareness, circadian rhythms, motor keep an eye on, and likely psychological issues. as well as unifying and predicting interdisciplinary info from psychology, psychophysiology, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and anatomy, the paintings indicates new real-time circuit designs for desktop imaginative and prescient and speech units, self-organizing trend acceptance machines, parallel processors, and adaptive robots.
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Additional info for Adaptive Brain
Consider the stages El and E2 of Section 8 for definiteness. What intuitive fact has changed when the equation C S , = visual presentation of food (3) UCSZ = visual presentation of food? (4 1 is replaced by Visual presentation of food has taken on the significance of food by being conditioned to the arousal cells A. The cue has acquired an internal meaning for L . Arousal prepares 18 Chapter 1 L to be able to learn that the cue CS, signals forthcoming satisfaction of the internal demand for food.
In other words, all CS and UCS inputs, except possibly UCS,, are delivered to F @ ) . Figure 8 illustrates the equivalence of these representations. I call the property of common representation for CS and UCS pathways CS-UCS path equivalence. Path equivalence is the anatomical substrate that makes secondary conditioning possible. Let us now summarize how the network in Figure 8 works during a classical condiWhen the CS tioning experiment. Let the CS activate vii’ and the UCS activate occurs, fires and sends signals to v i i ) and to the arousal population A.
2) In other words every CS can become a future UCS and every UCS can have been a past CS except possibly UCS1, on whose arousal properties the entire sequence of higher-order conditioning is built up. The time scale of each conditioning experiment is short, on the order of minutes. I assume that new intercellular pathways cannot be wholly created or destroyed during the short time needed to go from any stage E, to the next stage E,+1. It follows that there exists a common anatomical representation for CS and UCS processing except possibly for U C S I .