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Lipton, M. , Steigman, A. J. (1955) Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 88,114. Johnston, P. , Grayston, J. , Loosli, C. G. (1957) Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 94, 338. , Coleman, V. R. (1952) /. Immunol. 68, 645. , Strickland, A. G. R. (1956) Virology, 2, 162. Porterfield, J. S. (1960) Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 22, 373. Daniels, J. , Ratner, J. , Brown, S. R. (1961) Science, 133, 640. SEROLOGY 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 45 Porterfield, J. S.
F. ) Primary Expiant Cultures The various expiant techniques are all basically similar and their use in modern virology is mainly limited to direct virus isolation from freshly removed tissues. Although more refined techniques using cover slip preparations over cavity slides and perfusion chambers are used in biochemical and physiological studies, most virological expiant cultures are prepared in tubes. 17 Here the freshly removed tissue is dissected into 30 AN I N T R O D U C T I O N TO GENERAL VIROLOGY small pieces about 1 cumm.
Subsequent cleaning is carried out in exactly the same way but omitting steps 1 and 2. The bungs and liners should preferably be made of silicone or silicone rubber although ordinary rubber can be used. These should be cleaned by boiling in 5 % sodium bicarbonate solution and then rinsed and dried as for glass. Finally, before use all glass and rubber ware must be sterilised, either by autoclaving or by dry heat. Culture Media The fluid media used for growth are all complex in composition. The earliest were composed almost entirely of biological fluids and tissue extracts such as serum, amniotic fluid, ascitic fluid and chick or bovine embryo extract.