By Michiel Steyaert (Editor), Arthur H.M. van Roermund (Editor), Johan H. Huijsing (Editor)
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This new source offers readers with all suitable info and finished layout technique of wideband amplifiers. This booklet in particular makes a speciality of dispensed amplifiers and their major parts, and offers a number of RF and microwave functions together with recognized historic and up to date architectures, theoretical methods, circuit simulation, and useful implementation recommendations.
Additional info for Analog Circuit Design: Structured Mixed-Mode Design, Multi-Bit Sigma-Delta Converters, Short Range RF Circuits
The optimization stops when a defined number of iterations is performed. The presented flow is a simulation-in-the-loop approach and the main disadvantage of these approaches is that finding an optimum takes a lot of time: for every parameter set evaluation, a circuit simulation is performed. However, with ever stronger computing power available, it becomes an interesting solution to obtain relatively fast useable results and in addition the flow is easy to implement. As mentioned above, the tool automates only to a certain extent the transconductor design because of the problems that emerge when a non-feasible solution is asked for.
From this simplified model, we derive a linearized (small-signal) model to which we add small-signal capacitances resulting in the hybrid equivalent circuit for the bipolar transistor and in similar equivalent circuits for the other devices. This model allows us to study the small-signal dynamic behavior in 56 terms of gain, immittances, poles and zeros, impulse response, etc. 5. In order to obtain a noise model, we add (stationary) noise sources to the small-signal model. In general these noise sources will depend on the biasing conditions, so that this model allows us to optimize the noise performance for a certain source impedance.
The noise floors are directly available from the DR optimization. However, typically maximum harmonic distortion is specified as a percentage of the output signal which is independent of the noise floor. A second approach is hence to use the filter transfer function and to compute the allowed signal distortion at the integrator nodes from the output signal distortion. In case was applied, this is trivial. For a random input signal will however not be the best solution. In addition a filter transfer function is per definition frequency dependent, making it difficult to define an allowed fixed distortion voltage.