By Brian Stout, Joe Yates, Brian Williams
This can be the 1st ebook to hide comprehensively and accessibly the realm of utilized criminology. It attracts jointly best specialists with event of educating, study and perform. every one bankruptcy engages with the applying of criminology in a specific quarter of the neighborhood and legal justice procedure.
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Crime and law and order are highly politicised issues and the symbolic impact of responses to it can be more important than their actual effectiveness. The current view is that individuals are responsible for their actions and an appropriate response is increased control and surveillance of identified risky individuals. The preferred approach to crime prevention is situational rather than individual, and the need ‘to provide intellectual legitimation for state policies [has] waned’ (Haggerty, 2004: 217).
At the same time, the distinction between policy and practice is not always clear cut. Policy making and reshaping happens at a number of levels within an organization, and although the broad policy framework may be determined by a central government department, local managers and policy makers translate it for the local framework, and individual practitioners in turn shape policy in its implementation (Nutley and Webb, 2000: 15). Evidence-based practice is often presented as being better than professional judgement but Hammersley (2005) argues that although they are different one is not always and inevitably better than the other.
2004: v) Conceived as an evidence-based project, it began with a review of the existing research evidence (Goldblatt and Lewis, 1998) about the various ways in which crime reduction might be addressed: preventing criminality, reducing opportunities for crime, social cohesion in communities, policing, sentencing and intervention with offenders. , 2004: v). The Treasury invested £250 million into the first three years, with ten per cent committed to comprehensive evaluation of the projects. Although designed as a project for the long term (ten years), the programme was ended after the initial three years, although some of the projects continued.