By Spencer J. Pack
During this identify, Spencer Pack compares and contrasts Aristotle's, Smith's and Marx's theoretical structures on six primary matters: alternate worth, cash, capital, personality, executive, and alter. This ebook additionally offers insights on concerns about the carrying on with improvement of global cash, saving, managerial capitalism, corrupt governments, and diverse secular and spiritual pursuits for social switch.
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Extra resources for Aristotle, Adam Smith and Karl Marx: On Some Fundamental Issues in the 21st Century Political Ecomomy
Whilst [it] is devoid of life as compared with an animal, it is endowed with life as compared with other corporeal entities. Indeed, as we just remarked, there is observed in plants a continuous scale of ascent towards the animal. 11 In terms of capacity and the power/ability to do things, animals are better than plants, which are better than lifeless things. )12 The ascent in terms of capabilities from plants to animals (and then to humans) may very well have influenced Darwin’s world-view. (Note that prescient word ascent.
Aristotle defines excellence in the Eudemian Ethics as ‘the best state or condition or faculty of all things that have a use and work’ (1218b–1219a). Excellence for humans means to be the best that you can be, to reach your potentials, to realize your capabilities (Politics: 1333a). Aristotle says in the Politics that ‘We maintain, and have said in the Ethics, if the arguments there adduced are of any value, that happiness is the realization and perfect exercise of excellence’ (1332a); and in the Nicomachean Ethics he holds that ‘he is happy who is active in conformity with complete excellence and is sufficiently equipped with external goods’ (1101a).
The hot can become cold. The strong can become weak. Since, as seen in the above section, things can be more or less natural, this means that the natural is not a contradiction. Our everyday use of language, that things tend to be either natural or unnatural, suggests that natural is a contradiction with no intermediary; not so for Aristotle! Instead, natural for Aristotle is a contrary, and there will be a tendency for the natural to turn into its opposite, the unnatural. To further understand what Aristotle means by the unnatural use of money we need to briefly consider Aristotle’s theory of causality.