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By K. Baberschke, M. Donath, W. Nolting

The attention-grabbing phenomenon ferromagnetism is much from being totally understood, even though it definitely belongs to the oldest difficulties of reliable nation physics. For any research it seems that recommendable to tell apart among fabrics whose spontaneous magnetization stems from localized electrons of ?lled atomic shell and people within which it truly is because of itinerant electrons of ?lled conduction band. within the latter case one speaks of band-ferromagnetism, prototypes of that are the classical ferromagnets Fe, Co, and Ni. the current ebook is a standing file at the impressive growth that has lately been made in the direction of a microscopic realizing of band-ferromagnetism as an electron c- relation e?ect. The authors of many of the chapters of this booklet “Band-Ferromagnetism: Ground-State and Finite-Temperature Phenomena” participated as chosen - perts within the 242nd WE-Heraeus-Seminar (4-6 October 2000) held below virtually an analogous identify in Wandlitz close to Berlin (Germany). It used to be the second one seminar of this sort in Wandlitz. (The ?rst in 1998 handled the complementary subject of the physics of local-moment ferromagnets resembling Gd). Twenty-six invited spe- ers from ten di?erent nations including ?fty-?ve additional individuals, who provided contributions in kind of posters, spent 3 days jointly discussing in an enthusiastic and fertile demeanour the new subject matters of band-ferromagnetism.

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Rev. B 54, 61 (1996) 25. L. N´eel: J. Physique Radium 15, 376 (1954) Anisotropy in Magnetism 45 26. U. Gradmann: J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 100, 481 (1991); U. Gradmann: J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 54/57, 733 (1986) 27. M. Farle, W. Platow, E. Kosubek, K. Baberschke: Surf. Sci. 439, 146 (1999) 28. K. Baberschke: Appl. Phys. A 62, 417 (1996) 29. C. Uiberacker, J. Zabloudil, P. Weinberger, L. Szunyogh, C. Sommers: Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1289 (1999) 30. K. Baberschke, M. Farle: J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5038 (1997) 31.

For finite-sized samples like ultrathin films two approaches are commonly used: • The continuum model assuming a dipole density: This leads to the wellknown demagnetizing factor N times the magnetization M 2 : E dip = 2π N ⊥ − N || M 2 (4) • The discrete lattice sum over point dipoles: Here a magnetic moment per lattice site is assumed and the summation (Madelung-sum) is taken over the whole specimen. Today’s experiments in metallic ferromagnets and ultrathin films are that precise and demonstrate that non of the two models is good enough.

5. Magnetic Anisotropy energy calculated for 12 ML Ni/Cu(001) [29]. 1, was calculated for each layer, starting with 3 layers of Cu substrate, followed by 12 layers of Ni atoms and 3 layers on the vacuum side above Ni. The open triangles denote an unrelaxed, cubic fcc-lattice, squares and circles correspond to a relaxed tetragonal structure. temperature dependent spin reorientation transition [30]; for the present focus it is all important to note that the main reason for the reorientation is the above discussed K V contribution of the fct Ni.

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