By Marcel Mulder
The sphere of artificial membrane technology and know-how is an energetic, growing to be box related to an interdisciplinary mix of polymer chemistry, actual chemistry, and chemical engineering. a few membrane approaches are quite good understood, and feature been commercialised for a few time period. different membrane tactics have just recently been hired in advertisement functions, and nonetheless different tactics are just in formative learn levels. This quantity provides a entire compendium of the fundamental ideas within the box of man-made membranes. the next subject matters are lined: easy features of membrane procedures; fabrics and fabric houses; membrane guidance and characterisation; membrane shipping; focus polarisation and fouling; approach and module layout. the second one variation of this well-established textual content has been significantly increased and up-to-date, and lots of chapters now include sections giving solved and unsolved difficulties. viewers: This booklet is suggested as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate scholars, in addition to a accomplished reference for engineers, scientists, and technical administration.
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Extra resources for Basic Principles of Membrane Technology, Second Edition
Lipton, M. , Steigman, A. J. (1955) Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 88,114. Johnston, P. , Grayston, J. , Loosli, C. G. (1957) Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 94, 338. , Coleman, V. R. (1952) /. Immunol. 68, 645. , Strickland, A. G. R. (1956) Virology, 2, 162. Porterfield, J. S. (1960) Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 22, 373. Daniels, J. , Ratner, J. , Brown, S. R. (1961) Science, 133, 640. SEROLOGY 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 45 Porterfield, J. S.
F. ) Primary Expiant Cultures The various expiant techniques are all basically similar and their use in modern virology is mainly limited to direct virus isolation from freshly removed tissues. Although more refined techniques using cover slip preparations over cavity slides and perfusion chambers are used in biochemical and physiological studies, most virological expiant cultures are prepared in tubes. 17 Here the freshly removed tissue is dissected into 30 AN I N T R O D U C T I O N TO GENERAL VIROLOGY small pieces about 1 cumm.
Subsequent cleaning is carried out in exactly the same way but omitting steps 1 and 2. The bungs and liners should preferably be made of silicone or silicone rubber although ordinary rubber can be used. These should be cleaned by boiling in 5 % sodium bicarbonate solution and then rinsed and dried as for glass. Finally, before use all glass and rubber ware must be sterilised, either by autoclaving or by dry heat. Culture Media The fluid media used for growth are all complex in composition. The earliest were composed almost entirely of biological fluids and tissue extracts such as serum, amniotic fluid, ascitic fluid and chick or bovine embryo extract.