By Sabine Fillinger, Yigal Elad
The fungal genus Botrytis is the point of interest of in depth clinical learn around the globe. The complicated interactions among this pathogen and the crops it infects and the commercial significance of the ailments because of Botrytis (principally gray mildew) on greater than 1400 species of cultivated vegetation pre- and post-harvest, render this pathogen of specific curiosity to farmers, advisers, scholars and researchers in lots of fields around the globe. This 20-chapter publication is a complete treatise protecting the speedily constructing technological know-how of Botrytis and reflecting the main advancements in stories of this fungus. it's going to function a resource of common info for experts in agriculture and horticulture, and likewise for college kids and scientists attracted to the biology of this attention-grabbing, multifaceted phytopathogenic fungal species.
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Consequently, they hypothesized that the appearance of new chromosomal bands and loss of others is a result of meiotic crossing-over between pairs of homologous chromosomes having heterologous regions that generate variation in homologous chromosomes length. Small chromosomes show anomalous segregation following meiotic recombination, indicating they are supernumerary (dispensable or “B” chromosomes) (Fig. 4). The role of minichromosomes is still unknown, but De Guido et al. (unpublished) found that these hold genes coding for polyketide synthases (PKS), enzymes involved in the production of secondary metabolites that might play a role in pathogenicity (Chap.
Up to 16 chromosomes were counted in some preparations in late pachytene and diachinesis stages The latter estimates correspond to a number of 12–14 chromosomes that, according to the cytological evidence of 16 chromosomes, indicates some bands should correspond to more than 2 chromosomes. Indeed, the estimated genome size after genome sequencing corroborates this assumption (see Sect. 5 and Chap. 1). In some instances, ascospore progenies show the parental electrophoretic patterns, but often they show novel profiles.
1994). Nevertheless, qPCR may have an advantage over antibody-based methods by allowing earlier detection of Botrytis infection (Celik et al. 2009). Indeed, the qPCR detection assay may be able to detect as few as three conidia, and probably even fewer if the high-copy ITS rDNA gene is targeted (Mehli et al. 2005). 7 Conclusions The major technical advances that have been made in the past decade in immunological and molecular techniques have helped considerably in the classification of the genus, identification of new species, expanded our knowledge of host ranges and furthered our understanding of the biology of Botrytis species.