By Terry Jenkins
This concise advisor to British heritage not just summarizes the colourful previous of a tiny but strong state, but additionally explains how the British built their particular id, and what the longer term may carry for this island state
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Extra info for Britain: A Short History
But the possession of a pomestie was conditional, dependent on the discharge of military obligations, and thus clearly different from an otchina, a piece of land that passed from parent to offspring. To implement the pomestie system, Ivan needed vast stretches of fertile land, a commodity in short supply. The boyars, who owned much of that land, could not be easily deprived of their holdings, for they were the leading force in society. Ivan therefore turned to Novgorod, where he forced the church to hand over to him more than half its holdings.
These profits went towards purchasing additional land, which Ivan acquired from impecunious princes, private landlords, and ecclesiastical institutions. The Khan, grateful to be relieved of the burden of collecting the tribute himself, gave his blessing to Ivan's unremitting accumulation of territory. One of the most significant aspects of Ivan's reign was the transformation of Moscow into the spiritual center of the nation. The repeated Mongol incursions into Kiev had induced Metropolitan Maxim to abandon that city in favor of Vladimir in 1299.
Mamai organized a huge army and in 1380, after forming an alliance with Lithuania, crossed the Volga and advanced toward Moscow. In an attempt to settle the issue without bloodshed, Mamai offered Dmitrii peace in return for the resumption of tribute in the amount customary before 1371. The grand prince responded by appealing to other Russian princes to join in a crusade against the Tatars. Several answered the call and by the summer of 1380 he had assembled an army of thirty thousand men, most from his own principality.