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By Hanns-Christian Gunga, Victoria Weller von Ahlefeld, Hans-Joachim Appell Coriolano, Andreas Werner, Uwe Hoffmann

This publication comprehensively describes the physiological adjustments and outcomes that take place in people in the course of spaceflight. It in particular provides the variations of the cardiovascular and the respiration procedure. particular alterations happening after 10, 20 or extra days in area are depicted. in addition, the e-book explains a variety of powerful countermeasures which are required upon go back of the astronauts to Earth.

The booklet is a must have for all biomedical and scientific researchers within the box of cardiovascular biology and breathing, and a desirable interpreting for all laymen, who desire to comprehend a section extra approximately spaceflight examine and technology.

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Additional resources for Cardiovascular System, Red Blood Cells, and Oxygen Transport in Microgravity

Sample text

To resolve the prevailing inter-study ambiguity, more research campaigns involving the long-term changes of cardiac parameters are required. Shifts in the cardiovascular system could also have an influence on the vision acuity of astronauts. During long-term missions of at least 6 months, crew members report a decrease in their vision acuity and blurred eyesight [59]. So far, there are no indications that prolonged exposure to microgravity could lead to blindness in the near term. A possible cause for the changes in vision is an increase in intracranial pressure—pressure in the skull.

The CVP is the pressure in the venae cavae—the veins carrying deoxygenated blood to the heart’s right atrium—and is influenced by the blood shift to the upper body. Therefore, the CVP is an indicator of the amount of blood shifted and the rate at which this shift occurs. Direct measurement of the CVP requires a catheter placed very close to the heart, which bears obvious hazards. An alternative technique used by Dr. Karl Kirsch in the mid-1980s determines the pressure in the veins in the arm. This measurement reflects the CVP at the right atrium under the assumption that all venous valves remain open to create an open circuit between both locations.

Sahm PR, Keller MH, Schiewe B (1993) Research in space: the German Spacelab missions. Wissenschaftliche Projektf€ uhrung D-2, K€ oln, Germany 53. Gauer OH, Henry JP (1963) Circulatory basis of fluid volume control. Physiol Rev 43 (3):423–481 54. Cirillo M, De Santo NG, Heer M, Norsk P, Elmann-Larsen B, Bellini L et al (2003) Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions. Nephron Physiol 93(4):p102– p105 55. Grigoriev AI, Kotovskaya AR, Fomina GA (2011) The human cardiovascular system during space flight.

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