By Amir Ranjbar
* grasp all 642-845 examination issues with the legitimate examine consultant * determine your wisdom with chapter-opening quizzes * overview key techniques with starting place summaries * perform with hundreds and hundreds of examination questions about the CD-ROM CCNP ONT reliable examination Certification advisor is a better of breed CiscoR examination examine consultant that focuses in particular at the ambitions for the Optimizing Converged Cisco Networks examination (642-845 ONT). effectively passing the ONT 642-845 examination certifies that you've got the information and talents essential to optimize and practice powerful QoS innovations for converged networks.CCNP ONT reliable examination Certification advisor follows a logical association of the CCNPR ONT examination goals. fabric is gifted in a concise demeanour, targeting expanding your retention and bear in mind of examination issues. you could set up your examination coaching by utilizing the constant gains in those chapters. "Do i do know This Already?" quizzes open each one bankruptcy and let you come to a decision how a lot time you must spend on each one part. examination subject lists and concise beginning precis details make referencing effortless and provides you a short refresher everytime you desire it. not easy chapter-ending overview questions assist you determine your wisdom and toughen key concepts.The significant other CD-ROM includes a robust trying out engine that allowsyou to target person subject parts or take entire, timed checks. The review engine additionally tracks your functionality and offers suggestions on a topic-by-topic foundation, proposing question-by-question remediation to the textual content. good seemed for its point of element, evaluate beneficial properties, and hard overview questions and routines, this booklet is helping you grasp the recommendations and strategies that could aid you be successful at the examination the 1st time.
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Based on the codec used, the DSP generates so many bits per second. The bits that are generated for 10 milliseconds (ms) of analog voice signal form one digital voice sample. The size of the digital voice sample depends on the codec used. Table 1-6 shows how the digital voice sample size changes based on the codec used. The number of voice bytes for two digital voice samples using different codecs is shown in the last column. book Page 35 Monday, April 23, 2007 8:58 AM Bandwidth Calculation 35 The total size of a Layer 2 frame encapsulating a VoIP packet depends on the following factors: ■ Packet rate and packetization size—Packet rate, specified in packets per seconds (pps), is inversely proportional to packetization size, which is the amount of voice that is digitized and encapsulated in each IP packet.
It also performs compression (codec), echo cancellation, voice activity detection (VAD), comfort noise generation (CNG), jitter handling, and some other functions. When the two parties in an audio call use different codecs, a DSP resource is needed to perform codec conversion; this is called transcoding. Figure 1-9 shows a company with a main branch and a remote branch with an IP connection over WAN. 711 codec. 729 for VoIP communication with the main branch. In this case, the edge voice router at the main branch needs to perform transcoding using its DSP resources so that the people in the remote branch can retrieve their voice mail from the voice mail system at the main branch.
Table 1-4 displays each of the MOS ratings along with its corresponding interpretation, and a description for its distortion level. 0 is deemed to be Toll Quality. 861 standard, is another voice quality measurement technique implemented in test equipment systems offered by many vendors. 5 is the worst. Perceptual analysis measurement system (PAMS) was developed in the late 1990s by British Telecom. PAMS is a predictive voice quality measurement system. In other words, it can predict subjective speech quality measurement methods such as MOS.