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Example text

The New Life Movement was promoted from 1 934 onwards as an answer to Communism. It was a mixture of traditional Confucian values of respect for parents and authority with the hopes of Sun Yat­ sen for national renewal and an element of Christian missionary social reformism. Chiang had high hopes, but it descended into trivia like the campaigns against urinating, spitting and smoking in public and careful regulation of women's clothing. The B lueshirts were headed by Whampoa cadets, of whom the most important was Dai Li.

The influence of Russian advisers was paramount and, from the start, partially resented, but then the Comintern provided US$5 ,000 per annum to keep the fledgling party alive. Sneevliet had caused particular controversy at the founding meeting by urging cooperation with the GMD. This line was insisted upon by Moscow who saw the GMD as a more useful tool than the tiny new Communist Party. The issue was raised again and again at meetings. In the 1 922 congress of the CCP it was agreed to seek a temporary alliance to combat warlords and in the third congress in 1 92 3 it was agreed that communists could not only cooperate with the GMD but actually join the party as a 'bloc within' .

Both owed much to Russian help and the Moscow based Comintern. One was the newly founded Communist Party. The other was the resurrected GMD. RTH O F T H E CH I N ES E COM M U N I ST (CCP) The new Soviet government in Russia aroused interest and hope among many young Chinese revolutionaries. It seemed that the Bolsheviks in Russia had done what they wanted to do in China. An old regime had been overthrown and, despite the intervention of the western powers in the Russian civil war, the Bolsheviks had triumphed in 1 92 1 .

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