By Luke Harris (Auth.)
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100 c. Combining (a) and (b) for Pco 2 can be direct because of linearity of C 0 2 dissociation curve 8 0 + 4 (30) Ί-hLJ. = 4 o m m H g . 5 d. For oxygen (because of S-shaped dissociation curve) (a) + (b) must be combined in terms of 0 2 content first: *5 + 4 v(l9'6) 0 1 / i -^ ^ v ' = 18-7 ml /ioo ml 5 which gives saturation of 18-7 X 100 = 93'5 P e r cent 20 which would give P o 2 of 75 mm Hg (these 0 2 values would be low for a man of 40 years of age). Thus 20 per cent underventilation can be com pensated by overventilation as far as Paco 2 is concerned but some hypoxaemia persists.
The mean normal resting value is 3 litres per min per m 2 . (—5*5 litres per min in average male of ι·8 m 2 ). CLINICAL RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY Table i. EXERCISE VALUES FOR CARDIAC INDEX (LITRES P E R MIN P E R M2) MALES Mild Moderate Severe <40 7*5 9*5 11 *5 >40 6 8-5 11 FEMALES <40 65 80 90 >40 7-5 80 95 ± 20 per cent of stated values should be considered as within normal range. Chapter Seven Ventil ation—Perfusion Ratios More important than either the distribution of ventilation alone, or the estimation of pulmonary blood flow alone, is consideration of the relationship between them, since the state of the blood gases is determined by this relationship.
This results in a lower saturation and content at any given P o j and thus unloading of 0 2 to tissues is impaired. The shape of the curves is such that in the lungs increasing Pot above 75 mm Hg makes little difference to saturation, but in the mixed-venous—arterial range there is rapid resaturation. A't tissue level a large quantity of O , can be released for a small fall i n P o a . BLOOD GASES 45 T h e blood gas disturbances met with clinically a r e : 1. Hypoxaemia ( P a o 2 | ) without G 0 2 retention 2.