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By Jan-Erik Lane, Paul Pennings

This quantity brings jointly comparative stories and in-depth case reports that examine the range of occasion procedure switch in Europe. In so doing it provides a version for swap which demanding situations orthodox perspectives of political evolution.

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The four main parties remain more or less on their “own” side of the left—right spectrum. They may not do this as consistently as the majority of established parties in other European democracies, but the basic distinction between left and right is still prevalent in party movements. As stated earlier, party system change will rarely take the form of an earthquake election because the pace, direction, nature and the effects of change differ in each case, depending on distinctive institutional settings of party systems.

Sources: Austria: Harpfer 1985:245; Denmark: Thomsen 1987: Appendix 2; our calculations; Thomsen 1995:321; our calculation; Finland: Zilliachus 1995:Appendix; our cancellations; Germany; Klingemanm 1985:242; our our calculation; Zelle 1995:323; Netherlands: Daalder 1987: 230; our calculations; Anker 1996: personal communication; our calculations; Norway: Aardal and Valen 1995:33; Valen and Aardal 1983:52; Aardal and Valen 1989: 160; Valen et al. 1990:27; Aardal and Valen, 1995:238; our calculations; Sweden; Gilljam and Holmberg 1995:30; Holmberg 1981:40; Holmberg 1984:29; Holmberg and Gilljam 1987:87; Gilljam and Holmberg 1990:108; Gilljam and Holmberg 1993:73; Gilljam and Holmberg 1995:33; our calculations; United Kingdom: Heath et al.

Party switching then has an average score of 19 percent, gross volatility of 29 percent and overall volatility of 35 percent. This means that party switching catches roughly 50 percent of the overall volatility while making up about two-thirds of the gross volatility estimated. 1. 1. 1. time of individual level electoral change. 2. Although these aggregated scores are not truly representative of all Western Europe, they do indicate some patterns over time. In the long run electoral change is on the rise, but there are clear signs of fluctuations over time, high scores followed by lower scores, followed by higher scores again.

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