Download Contemporary Criminology and Criminal Justice Theory: by Geoffrey R. Skoll (auth.) PDF

By Geoffrey R. Skoll (auth.)

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The problem of induction simply states that there can never be enough observations to establish the truth of a regularity or theory. Logically, there could always be a PIM who did not mimic. The physicist’s explanation does not try to explain why PIMs always are observed to mimic, or why there are no observations of nonmimicking behavior. ’ as it is, can’t be answered . . [Instead], ‘Why is the possible thought to be possible? ’ ” (Hung 2006:12). The physicist turns an ontological question into one that is epistemological.

The truth of them should be measurable. Hypotheses, then, are statements with a testable truth value. Following Alfred Tarski’s 1933 essay on truth in formal languages, truth is defined by the following: The statement “snow is white” is true if and only if snow is white. “Snow is white” is a hypothesis. In order to test its truth value—that is, measure how true it is—researchers must specify how to define “snow” and “white” and measure whiteness, which is the variable in the hypothesis. Subjecting the hypothesis to empirical test requires finding some snow and measuring its whiteness.

Art’s truths are subjective. All methods of gaining knowledge have certain basic assumptions. As Kurt Gödel demonstrated in 1931 for arithmetic, all formal systems, of which scientific method is one, necessarily contain elements unprovable within the system. Science has at least four, which are its basic assumptions. They are as follows: First, reality exists. Second, it exists independently of mind. Third, it is accessible through the senses. Finally, reality has discoverable regularities; it is not random.

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