By Charles F. Kennel
The magnetosphere is the area the place cosmic rays and the sunlight wind engage with the Earth's magnetic box, developing such phenomena because the northern lighting fixtures and different aurorae. The configuration and dynamics of the magnetosphere are of curiosity to planetary physicists, geophysicists, plasma astrophysicists, and to scientists making plans area missions. The flow of sunlight wind plasma within the magnetosphere and substorms have lengthy been used because the precept paradigms for learning this important sector. Charles F. Kennel, a number one scientist within the box, right here provides a synthesis of the convection and substorm literatures, and an research of convection and substorm interactions; he additionally means that the at present authorised regular reconnection version could be advantageously changed through a version of a number of tail reconnection occasions, within which many together interdependent reconnections ensue. Written in an obtainable, non-mathematical type, this booklet introduces the reader to the intriguing discoveries during this fast-growing box.
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Extra info for Convection and Substorms: Paradigms of Magnetospheric Phenomenology
1974). In retrospect, magnetospheric convection and its mapping to the ionosphere are fairly straightforward applications of magnetohydrodynamic reasoning. However, Axford and Hines' (1961) third idea, that a collisionless process with properties reminiscent of fluid viscosity operates at the magnetopause, invoked a statement of faith about a physical effect that still does not have a generally accepted explanation today. Another point is important in retrospect. 4. The Reconnection Model of the Magnetosphere.
The topology of the magnetic lines of force, which is fixed in the highly conducting fluid elsewhere, is broken by the dissipation in the thin layer between the oppositely directed fields. The magnetic field lines diffuse across the resistive layer and reconnect. The Maxwell stresses in the new field configuration accelerate the fluid parallel to the plane of the resistive layer, thereby evacuating the resistive layer and permitting new plasma and new magnetic flux to be brought forward to be reconnected.
The last part of Chapter 13 deals with the relationship between events in the geosynchronous region and those slightly farther downstream in the plasma sheet. Whether depolarization propagates radially to stimulate other substorm effects, such as reconnection, further downtail is a matter of active investigation. 10). This only emphasizes the interest in what happens just tailward of the geosynchronous region. 11). 12). The dropout is followed by plasma sheet recovery, which appears to be a consequence of reconnection occurring tailward of the observing spacecraft.