Download Cost Estimating Manual for Pipelines and Marine Structures by John S. PDF

By John S.

From the booklet - Preface:
This guide has been compiled to supply time frames, exertions crews and kit spreads to aid the estimator in capsulizing an estimate for the deploy of cross-country pipelines, marshland pipelines, nearshore and surf sector pipelines, submerged pipelines, wharfs, jetties, dock amenities, single-point morring terminals, offshore drilling and construction structures and gear and appurtenances put in thereon.

The time frames and hard work and gear spreads which seem all through this guide are the results of many time and technique stories carried out lower than different stipulations and at destinations during the international; those time frames and hard work and kit spreads mirror an entire, independent view of all operations concerned.

When one is engaged in compiling an estimate from any details provided through others, as is the case with this handbook, he should still view it in an goal gentle, giving due attention to the character of the venture handy and comparing all goods that can have an effect on the productiveness of work and all different components concerned.

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Additional info for Cost Estimating Manual for Pipelines and Marine Structures

Sample text

Energy Profile by Function Figure 2-8. Steam Profile by Function Energy Accounting and Analysis 35 Figure 2-9. Steam Distribution Nodal Diagram • Envelope Audit—Like the commercial audit, this audit surveys the building envelope for losses and gains due to leaks, building construction, entry and bay doors, glass, lack of insulation, etc. • Functional Audit—This audit determines the amount of energy required for particular building functions and identifies energy conservation opportunities in office and plant HVAC systems, lighting, domestic hot water, and other building functions similar to commercial buildings.

The pie chart below the energy use profile shows how much is spent for each fuel type. Using a pie chart representation can be very helpful in visualizing how energy is being used and how costs are distributed for those fuels. Figure 2-7 on the other hand shows how much of the energy is used for each function such as lighting, process, building and plant heating, and process ventilation. Pie charts similar to Figure 2-8 should be made for each category such as compressed air, steam, electricity, water, and natural gas.

34 Handbook of Energy Audits Figure 2-7. Energy Profile by Function Figure 2-8. Steam Profile by Function Energy Accounting and Analysis 35 Figure 2-9. Steam Distribution Nodal Diagram • Envelope Audit—Like the commercial audit, this audit surveys the building envelope for losses and gains due to leaks, building construction, entry and bay doors, glass, lack of insulation, etc. • Functional Audit—This audit determines the amount of energy required for particular building functions and identifies energy conservation opportunities in office and plant HVAC systems, lighting, domestic hot water, and other building functions similar to commercial buildings.

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