By M. Desaintfuscien

Actual approaches, concerning atomic phenomena, permit an increasing number of distinct time and frequency measurements. This growth isn't attainable with out handy processing of the respective uncooked facts. The ebook describes the information processing at numerous degrees: layout of the time and frequency references, characterization of the time and frequency references, purposes concerning exact time and/or frequency references.The metrological houses balance, accuracy and reproducibility are outlined and the approaches resulting in their characterization are proven. some of the features of the variance of the frequency fluctuations are mentioned and in comparison and their importance is given.Some significant purposes of the simplest frequency and time criteria are ultimately mentioned. the way in which the extraordinary precision of those resources is used to acquire special time and place details is proven: Time scales, used to explain each human and physical games, similar to astronomy, actual legislation, etc.; Positioning platforms, similar to GPS; Very lengthy base interferometry (VLBI).

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39) In conclusion, for very low values of the Fourier frequency ν (such that 1)), the direct contribution of the local oscillator frequency noise |GOL (ν)| vanishes, but the eﬀect of frequency aliasing due to the sampling brings the contribution fout (ν) ≈ δfLO (ν + k/Tl ) . 40) k=0 Special care must be taken to reduce this contribution by choosing the local oscillator. This local oscillator is often a hydrogen maser (see [57] for an example). 37) shows that the frequency noise of the local oscillator is totally transmitted on the output of the device.

Measure the residual population unbalance after the interrogation, which indicates how far f1 is from fCs . This is the response of the beam. 6. The response of the beam is then used to correct the frequency fo , so that it is as close as possible to its nominal value according to the deﬁnition of the SI second. This is the servo control of the output frequency. These steps can be found in every passive atomic frequency standard. They are summarized in Fig. 6 and details are given below. The atomic beam is in a vacuum chamber as good as possible, and the region where the atoms are excited by the microwave radiation is protected from spurious magnetic ﬁeld by magnetic shields.

The diﬀerence between the output frequency (neglecting the eﬀect of the various noise sources) and the atomic transition frequency. This is done by calculating the frequency response of the loop at the null Fourier frequency for the nominal frequency of the local oscillator and that of the atomic signal. This loop is shown in Fig. 5. The blocks with a transfer function ν and 1/ν correspond to the conversions phase → frequency and frequency → phase. The following frequency responses are deduced from this loop: fout kpc KH(ν) = f0 ν + nkpc KH(ν) 1 = , n fout ν = fLO ν + nkpc KH(ν) =0.