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By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

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Additional resources for Deposition, Retention, and Dosimetry of Inhaled Radioactive Substances: Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (N C R P Report)

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44 1 4. FACTORS AFFECTING STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Lavaging (saline washing) the airways of smoke-exposed laboratory animals and of human smokers yields greatly increased numbers of free cells over those recovered from nonsmoking controls. The cells are predominantly macrophages and tend to be discolored, larger in size, and richer i n cellular inclusions (including proteolytic enzymes) than those recovered from controls. , 1978). , 1992). These cells are also rich i n proteolytic enzymes, suggesting that they may participate in the destruction of small airways and alveoli.

22,either the number or the diameter of alveoli is known and the total volume of the alveoli is approgmately equal to 65 percent of the total lung capacity (TLC) at full inspiration. 3, but nowhere else in this Report. Physiology of the Respiratory Tract The most important physiological parameters required for respiratory tract dosimetry modeling are those related to ventilation and clearance mechanisms. Ventilation affects the amount and distribution of inhaled material that deposits in the respiratory tract.

There are large variations in nasal mucus flow rates at similar sites in different individuals. In addition, there are large variations in flow rates in different regions of the nasal airways, even in the same individual; the most rapid flow occurs in the mid-portion of the nasal passages. Mucus velocities in the main nasal passages of 34 1 3. 3. Overall clearance of material from the ciliated portion of the nasal passages occurs with a mean time of > 1 to 24 mm min-Iwith an average time of 6 mm min-'.

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