By Abd Al-Aziz Duri
The speedy growth of the early Islamic international is conventionally ascribed to a mix of extraordinary army management and spiritual fervor. during this publication, Abd-Al-Aziz Duri demonstrates how the expansion, improvement, and sturdiness of early Islamic governance derived from hugely refined platforms of management (in which the assumption of a Muslim ummah used to be the important characteristic) in addition to effective mechanisms for taxation and tax assortment. the truth that in a hugely dynamic interval of Islamic background a continuing method of management may perhaps undergo for a number of centuries, from the early Muslim conquests and the later Umayyad period to the tip of Abbasid rule, is testimony to the political and organizational abilities of those early Muslim leaders. Duri's paintings makes a big contribution to our realizing of the way Islam proven itself and flourished as an enduring significant strength within the improvement of global history.
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Additional info for Early Islamic Institutions: Administration and Taxation from the Caliphate to the Umayyads and Abbasids
Then Ibn RÆ≥iq took charge of it and acted even more presumptuously in his extortion and exploitation of the treasury. 183 Thus, the caliph became like a phantom beside the am∞r al-umarÆ≥, simply the companion of the actual ruler. 184 When al-RÆ∂∞ died, Bajkam, the then am∞r al-umarÆ≥, was in WÆsiπ so he sent his kÆtib (scribe) to oversee the choice of a new caliph. He held a council headed by the vizier, which was attended by each vizier and his kÆtib, as well as the ≤≠lid and ≤AbbÆsid tribal nobles (ashrÆf), the judges and the local notables (wuj∑h), so that the election would be complete in form.
The fertile lands between the Euphrates and the Tigris] and the conditions of his subjects; who is informed about measures, weights, prices of foodstuffs, current usage, the course of affairs and finances; who calls to account his deputy agents over that with which they are in charge, monitoring and censuring them as well as arguing with them; who knows their deceptions and pilfering and the excuses for the deceptions and pilfering in which others engage? How would the situation be for us, if the great were beholden to the lesser and the majestic to the narrow?
139 Thus, MarwÆn was elected on a tribal basis due to his age, experience and lineage. ’140 It appears that MarwÆn promised to cede to KhÆlid. 141 This was the first time that it was pledged to two men, and perhaps the disturbances Mu≤Æwiyah II’s position created and the many who coveted the caliphate pushed MarwÆn to this. Thus, began a normative practice which increased the problems of the Ban∑ Umayyah. We will not go into the details of the remaining history of the Umayyads since it is sufficient for us to elucidate that the revolts of the KhÆrijites, ≤≠lids and the ≤AbbÆsids were in the name of the Islamic principle.